Eindhoven, Fellenoord


Design study, strategies for a Square kilometre of City.
Commissioned by BNA Research, TU Delft, Ministries and the municipalities of Amsterdam, Rotterdam, The Hague


TANGRAM Architekten, MUST, Urban Sync, Wessel Tiessen Bottum Up Gebiedsontwikkeling, Arcadis, Fakton, Becx & van Loon, VU Amsterdam


The City of the Future. Ten Design Strategies for Five Locations. Visualizations for a Square Kilometre of City | BNA Onderzoek 2019


How do you develop a city in these times of great and rapid changes? For the design study City of the Future (2018), Team Triangel – with Tangram as chairman – came up with a radically different approach. Changes are happening so fast nowadays that we can barely plan for the next 5 years. Rigid master plans are outdated before they are adopted. The system from the last century, designed on the basis of “power” and “feeling”, falls short on all sides.

Area development must be able to move with changing circumstances. In our view, the Data – Policy – Design triangle forms the basis for urban planning of the future. (Big) data is becoming increasingly important in making the right choices and decisions, especially when it comes to all-important undercurrents such as climate, economy, demography and mobility. Because data is not all-knowing and does not guarantee that good choices will be made, a second instrument is needed: participation.

Urban development is increasingly a combination of choosing, forming coalitions and solving issues. We need a policy that takes into account the interests of all parties involved, including those of non-professionals such as local residents, local companies and other stakeholders. Team Triangel developed a planning game for this purpose. During the game, participants discuss choices and associated consequences. Together they must reach a coalition agreement. Involving all stakeholders makes the design process more democratic, less subject to interests and emotions.

Data forms the basis for a better policy, the planning game provides the preconditions for a better design. In an iterative process, the players arrive at policy principles. They use designers to create an adaptable urban grid. This grid is the basis for new plans and future changes.

  • The application of data has limitations, but they do provide a more solid basis for policy making.
  • Involve all stakeholders from an early stage. Let them think along about the preconditions and the schedule of requirements, so that the plan receives broad support. Dividing complex issues into manageable parts makes the participation process manageable.
  • Transition issues, including at local and regional level, require an integrated public approach..

Team Triangel focused on the test location Fellenoord in Eindhoven. Besides Eindhoven, there were four other test locations: Amsterdam, Rotterdam, The Hague and Utrecht. Several teams looked at new ways to make a city.



golden traingle of sustainable urban planning
Data is indespensable for iterative and adaptive policy and design processes. The time factory plays a double role: in the planning of the moment and in flexibility over time.

Game City of the Future: Fellenopoly. The game allows various stakeholders to participate in the process from the start. It facilitates the making of choices for living envirmoment of the future: a form of ‘invitational’ planning. Four parties sit at the table: central goverment and the province, the municipality, market parties and local stakeholders. 

Testlocation Fellenoord: we tested four scenario’s through time. 2027: the location grid is developed with a new square (‘Agora en suite’) as the starting point. 2040: the grid in een lower density with approx. 5.000 dwellings and facilities. 2040: the grid in a higher density with aprox. 10.000 homes and facilities. 2050: possible outcome after more than 20 years of planning and building to a density with approx. 15.000 dwellings and facilities.